Androgenetic Alopecia is the most frequent cause of hair loss in the world, affecting both men and women. It is genetically determined and generally becomes visible in men at an age of 20 while in women at an age of 30 onwards. It is really necessary to understand the phases of hair growth when we discuss hair loss. Hair growth has three phases:
• Anagen (the growth phase),
• Catagen (the regressing phase),
• Telogen (the resting or quiescent phase).
Because of the influence of androgens, the follicles in the temporal, frontal and vertex area of the scalp progressively show a shortening of the Anagen phase, accompanied by miniaturization of the hair follicles. A greater proportion of hair on the scalp enters into Telogen phase leading to accumulating loss. Androgenetic alopecia affects the hair cycle of the scalp in both men and women. It affects the percentage of hairs in Anagen phase and the duration of Anagen diminishes in areas affected by Androgenetic alopecia which results in shorter hairs. Because of these developments, more hairs are in the Telogen phase and much more subject to hair loss affecting the apparent density of the hair.
In men, this condition is also known as male-pattern baldness. The hair loss in men with Androgenetic Alopecia may begin at any time after puberty and it happens when serum androgen levels rise above the low level found in young boys. It starts with a bitemporal recession of hair and the density of hair tends to diminish with age. Although it is difficult to predict the pattern of hair loss in young men, it is proven that men losing hair in their early 20s will lose their hair most extensively if it is because of alopecia. Hair is lost in a well-defined pattern in some men, beginning above both temples. Over time, the hairline recedes to form a characteristic "M" shape. Hair also thins at the crown (near the top of the head), often progressing to partial or complete baldness.
Androgenetic alopecia in men has been associated with several medical conditions including coronary heart disease and enlargement of the prostate. Additionally, prostate cancer, disorders of insulin resistance (such as diabetes and obesity), and high blood pressure (hypertension) have been related to Androgenetic alopecia.
Androgenetic Alopecia in women, the hair loss in women because of Androgenetic alopecia is likely to be first noticed throughout 30s and early forties. It happens because of the hormonal changes in women. The institution or discontinuation of contraceptive pills can cause hormonal changes leading to Androgenetic Alopecia. Women rarely go bald and the end result of Androgenetic Alopecia is a visible decrease in density of hair. This condition can go worse because of iron deficiency or low thyroid activity leading to further thinning of the hair.
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